Write a short note on Stem Cells.


Stem cells are special types of cells found in the body of multicellular organisms and these give rise to all other types of cells visible in the body of multicellular organisms. It also plays a crucial role in healing the wound. New organisms are generated from the Zygote formed by the union of male and female gametes. During the early stages of development, the organism is found in the form of a mass of cells. All the cells in that mass are almost alike and are called stem cells. With further development, these cells can make any type of cell, various types of tissues and can perform different functions of the body. This is the differentiation of the stem cells. Once the tissue is formed, the cells in these tissues can form only the same types of cells, in each part of the body. Nevertheless, stem cells are present for a longer period in some parts of the body. Stem cells can be found in the umbilical cord by which the fetus is joined to the uterus of the mother. Meanwhile, they are also present in the blastocyst stage of embryonic development. Stem cells can be found in red bone marrow and adipose connective tissue of adult human beings. It is now possible to produce various types of tissues and the degenerated part of any organ using these stem cells. Now, for the purpose of stem cell preservation, the samples of stem cells are carefully collected from the sources such as cord blood, red bone marrow or embryo (blastocyst). Stem cells are kept in small, sterile vials, which are kept in liquid nitrogen at -1350C to -1900C. Also, as per the source, stem cells are of two types as embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem cells are used for regenerative therapy and during organ transplantation.

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